Otolaryngology - this is part of clinical medicine that studies the physiology and pathology of the ear, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, in the related areas. Diseases related to this section are common and known to almost every child.
Every body in this section medicine characterized by a specific operation and structure.
Nose. Nasal cavity covered with mucous membrane, which is connected via narrow openings of the maxillary (maxillary) sinuses and with the frontal sinus. Abundant blood supply to the nasal explains the reasons for such frequent nosebleeds.
By the throat doctors refer pharynx and larynx.
Throat. The pharynx is divided into nasal, oral and laryngeal parts. In May converging throat and respiratory tract, and the passage of food and air is regulated by reflex. During mucosa are the muscles that constrict the throat in the middle and lower divisions and pushing food into the esophagus. In the throat are tonsils.
Larynx. Larynx designed for air from the throat into the lower respiratory tract and serves to phonation.
Ear. The ear consists of an inner, middle and outer sections. In the inner ear are sound and vestibular analyzers. Middle ear - a tympanum with auditory ossicles - hammer, anvil and stirrup as well as the mastoid process and the eustachian tube
Common diseases of the nasal cavity - rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis. All of these diseases can be either acute or chronic. By ear diseases Otolaryngology refers otitis, eustachitis, tympanitis, traumatic injuries. In diseases of the pharynx and larynx Otolaryngology refers laryngitis, pharyngitis, sore throat.
Diseases of the ear, nose and throat increases, usually with the onset of autumn and winter season. Therefore ENT specialists are intended not to treat these diseases and their prevention exercise. The main task of medical otolaryngologists make immunity was secure and strong, and did not disappoint in the harshest frosts and with insidious virus. The first attack occurred in viruses such "sensitive" organs that react quickly to changes in the environment, and it is this: the ear, throat and nose.
Advice otolaryngologist are needed not only in the classical case, the appearance of well-known symptoms - pain in the ears, runny nose and cough, including purulent discharge, redness, pain and perchinnya throat, but prolonged headache, hearing loss, enlarged cervical lymph nodes, the appearance white coating on the tonsils.
Diseases of the throat
Aphonia is the inability to produce voice. It is considered more severe than dysphonia. A primary cause of aphonia is bilateral disruption of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which supplies nearly all the muscles in the larynx. Damage to the nerve may be the result of surgery (e. g. , thyroidectomy) or a